CrossRef citations to date Most studies have examined HIV-related risk to immigrants in their host countries. However, some may not seek the health information they need, or come out as 'gay', in part because they feel Cultures and Global Health Cluster, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
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However, a lesser-known indecent exposure law that often targeted LGBT people was introduced in before being repealed twenty years later.
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After granting same-sex couples domestic partnership benefits known as the civil solidarity pact , France became the thirteenth country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage in Laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity were enacted in and , respectively. In , France became the first country in the world to declassify transgenderism as a mental illness.
Additionally, since , transgender people have been allowed to change their legal gender without undergoing surgery or receiving any medical diagnosis. France has frequently been named one of the most gay-friendly countries in the world. Before the French Revolution, sodomy was a serious crime.
Jean Diot and Bruno Lenoir were the last gay people burned to death on 6 July This policy on private sexual conduct was retained in the Penal Code of and followed in nations and French colonies that adopted the Code. Still, homosexuality and cross-dressing were widely seen as being immoral, and LGBT people were still subjected to legal harassment under various laws concerning public morality and order.
Some LGBT people from the regions of Alsace and Lorraine , which were annexed by Nazi Germany in , were persecuted and interned in concentration camps. LGBT people were also persecuted under the Vichy Regime , despite there being no laws criminalizing homosexuality. An age of consent was introduced on 28 April It was fixed to 11 years for both sexes and later raised to 13 years in On 6 August , the Vichy Government introduced a discriminative law in the Penal Code: article moved to article on 8 February by the Provisional Government of the French Republic  which increased the age of consent to 21 for homosexual relations and 15 for heterosexual ones.
The age of 21 was then lowered to 18 in , which had become the age of legal majority.
Major AIDS conference opens in Paris amid funding shortfall concerns
A less known discriminative law was adopted in , inserting into the Penal Code article , 2nd alinea a clause that doubled the penalty for indecent exposure for homosexual activity. This ordonnance was intended to repress pimping. This ordonnance was adopted by the executive after it was authorised by Parliament to take legislative measures against national scourges such as alcoholism. Paul Mirguet , a Member of the National Assembly, felt that homosexuality was also a scourge, and thus proposed a sub-amendment, therefore known as the Mirguet amendment, tasking the Government to enact measures against homosexuality, which was adopted.
Article alinea 2 was repealed in as part of an act redefining several sexual offenses.
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Couples who enter into a PACS contract are afforded most of the legal protections, rights, and responsibilities of marriage. The right to adoption and artificial insemination are, however, denied to PACS partners and are largely restricted to married couples. Unlike married couples, they were originally not allowed to file joint tax returns until after 3 years, though this was changed in On 14 June , the National Assembly of France voted — against legalising same-sex marriage.
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Members of the Socialist Party stated that legalisation of same-sex marriage would become a priority should they gain a majority in the elections. In October, a marriage bill was introduced by the Aryault Government. On 4 April , the Senate started the debate on the bill and five days later approved its first article in a — vote. A challenge to the law by the conservative UMP party was filed with the Constitutional Council following the vote. Same-sex couples have been legally able to adopt children since May , when the same-sex marriage law took effect.
The first joint adoption by a same-sex couple was announced on 18 October In April , the Association of Gay and Lesbian Parents reported that only 4 same-sex couples had been able to jointly adopt a child,  and the Association of LGBT Families ADFH reported that "some families" were able to foster a French child and "less than ten" families were able to foster a foreign child.
This followed a report by an independent ethics panel in France which recommended that PMA law be revised to include lesbian couples and single people. In July , MP Guillaume Chiche introduced a bill to legalise assisted reproduction for lesbian couples and single women. Up until , France refused to recognise surrogate children as French citizens.
This left many such children in legal limbo. On 5 July , the Court of Cassation ruled that a child born to a surrogate abroad can be adopted by the partner of his or her biological father. However, it refused to register the children in the vital records.
In May , the Court of Appeal of Paris reversed certain parts of the decision, holding that the Canadian birth certificate must be recognised by the French state. In , national legislation was enacted to prohibit sexual orientation based discrimination in employment, housing and other public and private provisions of services and goods. The phrase "sexual identity" was used synonymous with " gender identity " despite some criticism from ILGA-Europe, who nevertheless still considered it an important step.
Chapter 2 of the Labour Code French : Code du travail [a] reads as follows: . No person may be excluded from a recruitment process or from access to an internship or a period of training in a company, no employee may be sanctioned, dismissed or subject to a discriminatory measure, direct or indirect, [ In March , Xavier Darcos , Minister of Education, announced a policy fighting against all forms of discrimination, including homophobia, in schools.
It was one of 15 national priorities of education for the — school year. The International Day Against Homophobia 17 May will also be a special day to promote actions of sensitisation. In February , it was reported that France uses the words "parent 1" and "parent 2" rather than "mother" and "father" on application forms to enroll children into schools. This caused widespread outrage among conservatives in France, despite both same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption having being legal in the country for six years.
On 31 December , the National Assembly approved an amendment to existing anti-discrimination legislation, making homophobic, sexist, racist, xenophobic etc. But the conservative Chirac Government pointed to a rise in anti-gay violence as justification for the measure. Ironically, an MP in Chirac's own UMP party, Christian Vanneste , became the first person to be convicted under the law in January although this conviction was later cancelled by the Court of Cassation after a refused appeal.
Title 3 and articles 20 and 21 of the law amended the Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July to make provisions for more specific offenses including injury, defamation, insult, incitement to hatred or violence, or discrimination against a person or group of persons because of their gender, sexual orientation or disability.
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When a physical assault or murder is motivated by the sexual orientation of the victim, the law increases the penalties that are normally given. In October , after a rise in a series of homophobic attacks , President Emmanuel Macron denounced the homophobic violence as being "unworthy of France", announcing future "concrete measures".
He tweeted: "Homophobic violence must be a concern for our entire society. They are unworthy of France.
Concrete measures will be announced but they [cannot] replace humanity and tolerance which are at the heart of our culture", without specifying the content of these future measures. Police identified around 1, victims of transphobic and homophobic attacks. In , the figures were around 1, In , France removed gender identity disorder as a diagnosis by decree,    but according to French transgender rights organizations, beyond the impact of the announcement itself, nothing changed.
Discrimination on the basis of "sexual identity" has been banned since On 6 November , a bill to allow transgender people to legally change their gender without the need for sex reassignment surgery and forced sterilisation was approved by the French Senate. Due to differing texts, a joint session was established.
On 12 July , the National Assembly approved a modified version of the bill which maintained the provisions outlawing psychiatrist certificates and proofs of sex reassignment surgery, while also dropping the original bill's provision of allowing self-certification of gender. In , transphobia became a cause of aggravation for all crimes that can be punished by prison. Intersex people in France enjoy some of the same rights as other people, but with significant gaps in protection from non-consensual medical interventions and protection from discrimination.
In response to pressure from intersex activists and recommendations by United Nations Treaty Bodies, the Senate published an inquiry into the treatment of intersex people in February Conversion therapy has a negative effect on the lives of LGBT people, and can lead to low self-esteem, depression and suicidal ideation.
The pseudoscientific practice is believed to include electroconvulsive therapy , exorcisms , starvation or, especially, talk therapy. A French survivor of a conversion therapy workshop described the practice as "psychological rape". The extent of the practice in France is unknown. In summer , MP Laurence Vanceunebrock-Mialon announced her intention to introduce a proposal to the National Assembly in to prohibit the usage of such 'treatments'. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals are allowed to serve openly in the French Armed Forces.
Grindr was a safe space for gay men. Its HIV status leak betrayed us
However, it was recalled by a ministerial decree on 12 January On 3 April , a deputy member of the UMP party , Arnaud Richard, presented an amendment against the exclusion of MSM, which was eventually adopted later in the same month. This policy was implemented and went into effect on 10 July Its turnout has increased significantly since the s, reaching around , participants in the late s. Its edition saw a turnout of , people.
Outside Paris, pride events are also held in numerous cities around the country, including Rennes and Marseille , which held their first in Others including Auxerre , Dijon , Nice and Avignon also hold pride events. Gay men from over countries were asked about how they feel about society's view on homosexuality, how do they experience the way they are treated by other people and how satisfied are they with their lives.
Same-sex marriage is legal in all of France's overseas departments and territories. Despite this, acceptance of homosexuality and same-sex relationships tends to be lower than in metropolitan France, as residents are in general more religious, and religion plays a bigger role in public life. Many of these societies are very family and tribe-oriented where family honor is highly regarded. In some of these territories, homosexuality is occasionally perceived as "foreign" and "practiced only by the white population". Nevertheless, the same-sex marriage law has resulted in increased discussion about the previously taboo and neglected topic.
LGBT people have gained notable visibility since Regarded as successful, the event was attended by a few thousand people and included a beach party and musical dances.